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    1. Top | #81
      Dr Evil is offline
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      First ~10 minutes on vaccine development. A few highlights: Moderna mRNA vaccine on track for 30,000 subject phase III trial beginning the first week of July. The Oxford vaccine is on more or less the same schedule, and by the end of the summer 4-5 vaccines could be there. November-December projection for positive efficacy results. At risk manufacturing should produce 100 million doses by then, and several hundred million by the beginning of 2021. Durability of response is a central concern now. Natural coronavirus immune protection often lasts less than a year.

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    3. Top | #82
      Baal is offline
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      Dr. Evil is right, there are things not known about the immune response to SARS-COv-2. The reason to be optimistic, however, is that researchers have identified things called CD4+ memory T-cells in patients who have had Covid-19 (and also earlier in SARS patients), which would usually suggest that immunity will be somewhat long lasting. It is possible that people might need to re-vaccinate every few years.

      https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1...440v1.full.pdf

      The next link is an explanation of some of this in less technical terms. Unfortunately, immunology is ridiculously complicated.

      https://blogs.sciencemag.org/pipelin...he-coronavirus

      With that said, some people in ICUs show signs of "immune exhaustion" which may be why they ended up there.

      https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...020.00827/full

      There is a thing called immune senescence. Regular exercise is known to delay it. By the way, one of the reasons HIV is so persistent and refractory to vaccine development is that virus actually INFECTS the CD4+ T-cells! So it is able to evade the immune system pretty much forever.

      Cornonaviruses fortunately do not have any superpowers quite like that, and they don't seem to mutate very rapidly at the most antigenic places (in contrast to, say, influenza viruses).

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    5. Top | #83
      Baal is offline
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      This came out today. Another drug that might actually work in severely ill Covid-19 patients. This result us VERY preliminary but it certainly justifies a decent clinical trial, which they indicate is being organized. This study was not a true clinical trial per se, it was an off-label observational study. This drug is FDA approved for lymphoma. But.... it costs $14,000 per month!!!

      Inhibition of Bruton tyrosine kinase in patients with severe COVID-19

      Mark Roschewski et al.

      Science Immunology 05 Jun 2020:

      Abstract
      Patients with severe COVID-19 have a hyperinflammatory immune response suggestive of macrophage activation. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) regulates macrophage signaling and activation. Acalabrutinib, a selective BTK inhibitor, was administered off-label to 19 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 (11 on supplemental oxygen; 8 on mechanical ventilation), 18 of whom had increasing oxygen requirements at baseline. Over a 10-14 day treatment course, acalabrutinib improved oxygenation in a majority of patients, often within 1-3 days, and had no discernable toxicity. Measures of inflammation – C-reactive protein and IL-6 – normalized quickly in most patients, as did lymphopenia, in correlation with improved oxygenation. At the end of acalabrutinib treatment, 8/11 (72.7%) patients in the supplemental oxygen cohort had been discharged on room air, and 4/8 (50%) patients in the mechanical ventilation cohort had been successfully extubated, with 2/8 (25%) discharged on room air. Ex vivo analysis revealed significantly elevated BTK activity, as evidenced by autophosphorylation, and increased IL-6 production in blood monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19 compared with blood monocytes from healthy volunteers. These results suggest that targeting excessive host inflammation with a BTK inhibitor is a therapeutic strategy in severe COVID-19 and has led to a confirmatory international prospective randomized controlled clinical trial.
      Last edited by Baal; 19 Hours Ago at 02:12 AM.

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